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Innocent Cyril (@admin)
3 months ago

Famous Female Druids

In a Celtic society of the ancient world, the tribal communities were divided into various classes. Above the common people such as the peasants and the artisans, there were the warrior classes, and then the ruling classes, such as the kings or the chieftains, who we are above the rest. But there was another class of people that enjoyed a very status. They were known as he druids.

The first important description about the Celts, come from the writing of Posidonius (c. 135-51 BC), the Syrian Stoic philosopher, who described the Celtic society. Posidonius may have provided extensive description of the Celts, none of his works survived, except from references from other works, most particular by Strabo, Greek geographer of the 1st century AD. Strabo mentioned Posidonius as his main source about the Celtic society.

Contemporary to Posidonius, was the great Roman general and statesman, Julius Caesar (100-44 BC), who described the barbarians in his memoir, the Gallic Wars, during his campaigns in Gaul (France and Belgium) and southeast England. It seemed that Caesar’s writing was probably influenced by Posidonius’ description on the Celts, but Caesar did have first-hand encounter with the Celts, some of them serving him in his army as allies, such as the Aedui.

Both writers give us descriptions of the priestly class, known as the druids and druidesses.

Caesar wrote further that druidism had probably originated in Britain, and later introduced druids into Gauls. Whether this statement is true or not, many modern scholars and historians had researched and speculated endlessly upon the origin of the druids.

To Caesar, the druids were secretive but learned group, who enjoyed special privileges among the Celtic population. They did not have to fight in wars, and they were exempted from paying taxes. They acted as judges in disputes, and they presided over those who commit act of crime, as well as setting penalties. They could travel anywhere without hindrance from any tribes.

Though there are many benefits of becoming a druid, it is still not an easy life. It may take over 20 years to learn the philosophy, divination, poetry, healing, religious rites, and magic. And all this without committing anything to writing. The druids, or any Gaul for that matter, were fully aware of writing down their knowledge, but chose not to do so, because they preferred to rely on memories. For the druids, their pupils were required to exercise their mind.

The Gauls and the druids were not illiterate. Because of the trades between the Gauls and the Greek city of Massilia (modern Marseille) in southern France, the Gauls had earlier used Greek letters, mainly for trade purposes. The druids had never used the Greek writing to record their knowledge and customs. After Roman conquest of Gaul and Britain, later the Celts had adopted Roman letters for mainly commercial purposes. There are some inscriptions found in sacred sites, such as in shrines and sanctuaries.

Caesar observed that the Gauls were very religious, and they always wait for the druids to perform the necessary rituals or sacrifices. The Celts didn’t build any temples to their gods. The druids practiced their worship in the open air, such as at sacred groves or near sacred lakes.

According to Caesar and other classical writers, the Gauls believed in the souls being immortal, where it passed on to another body after death. In another words, they believed in reincarnation or eschatology.

Below are a list of druids and druidesses that appeared in Celtic literature:

Iarboné, Tadq, Manawyddan, Bodhmall, Gebann, Biroq, Bé, Chuille, Finneses, Math,


Druids of Danu



Bé Chuille & Dianann







Finneces (Finegas)

Dark Druid (Fer Doirich)

Manawyddan, of Welsh Deities

Math, see Welsh Deities

Gwydyon, see Welsh Deities

Myrddin, see Merlin in the Arthurian Legends


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