Login     Sign up
cailynnjohnson (@cailynnjohnson)
4 months ago
The inception of cancer immunotherapy could be traced back to the 19th century when the 'Father of Cancer Immunotherapy', William Coley, successfully led spontaneous regression of tumors by developing erysipelas with the injection of Coley's toxins into cancer patients. Different from cytotoxic chemotherapy, cancer immunotherapy allows targeted therapies, which fight against cancer by exploiting the effector mechanisms of the immune system. Current therapeutic strategies have put more emphasis on coordinating the adaptive immune responses and anti-cancer immunotherapies, but these therapeutics often cause resistance and associated severe toxicities. Therefore, it's increasingly necessary to find alternative therapeutics to adaptive immunity-based immunotherapy, in the process of which the contributions of the innate immune effectors to anti-tumor immunity are growingly recognized. **Hazard of Existing immunotherapies for Leukemia** Immunotherapies are a promising option for treating leukemia compared with modern chemotherapy regimens that have many side effects. Cancer immunotherapies usually induce cancer remission in a long term by leveraging components of the immune system, in which antibodies have been taken as the best candidates for cancer immunotherapy use due to less off-target toxicities. Currently, three categories of immunotherapies, including antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), bispecific T-cell receptor-engaging (BITE) antibodies, and CAR-T cells are approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute leukemias. But these therapeutics for leukemia are greatly limited by resistance, toxicity, and applicability. Another shortcoming of existing immunotherapies is the incapability of eradicating cancer stem cells (CSCs). **Glycans in Cancer** Glycans are part of the immune system's components that can distinguish self from danger. However, cancer cells can make use of the total set of glycans in a biological species to adapt to and escape from the selection pressure exerted by the immune system. This process is called aberrant glycosylation and universally exists in all tumor cells, producing immunogenic glycans that are generally known as tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) or [cancer-associated glycans](https://www.creative-biolabs.com/anti-glycan-antibodies/glycans-in-oncology-altered-glycosylation-in-cancer.htm). Cancer-associated glycans takes an important part in cancer cell signaling, tumor cell dissociation and invasion, cell-matrix interactions, angiogenesis, metastasis and immune modulation, so from cancer-associated glycans researchers can identify that cancer cells have acquired cancer hallmark capabilities. The hallmarks of aberrant [glycosylation in leukemia](https://www.creative-biolabs.com/anti-glycan-antibodies/glycans-in-hematology.htm) and other cancer cells include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, deregulating cellular energy, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, activating invasion and metastasis, inducing angiogenesis, genome instability, and mutation, tumor promoting inflammation, and avoiding immune destruction. Moreover, it's proven that aberrant glycosylation is related to tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis, so it could be a new hallmark of cancer development. **Targeting Glycans in Leukemia Therapy** Researchers noticed that lectins can preferentially bind to carbohydrates, highlighting the significance of lectin-glycan interactions in the living system. Lectins have become one of the best candidates for the detection, isolation, and characterization of glycoconjugates, as well as for drug delivery to the site of action due to their ability to bind specific sugar residues in glycoproteins and glycolipid complexes. What's more, lectins can also be applied to distinguish malignant tumor cells from normal cells by recognizing modified glycan structures that are mainly expressed on the surface of tumor cells. Different from adaptive immune resistance that makes it possible for cancer cells to evade tumor-specific T-cell responses, the innate immune lectins as alternatives can specifically distinguish self from non-self cells and work as crucial defenders without replying on adaptive immunity for pathogen clearance. Considering that expression change of cell-surface glycans caused by the malignant cells is an intrinsic target for lectin recognition, the glycosylation landscape of leukemia and the clinical significance of lectins binding to leukemic blasts have long been an interest to researchers. Thus, the lectin pathway of recognizing cancer's aberrant glycans makes it a canonical component of the innate immune system, which can be exploited in targeting cancer-associated glycans as a therapeutic strategy in leukemia, as well as other cancer immunotherapies. [https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/26895293.2022.2049901](https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/26895293.2022.2049901)
From Zero to SAT Hero: Maximize Your Score With Innovative Online SAT Test Solutions
**From Zero to SAT Hero: Maximize Your Score With Innovative Online SAT Test Solutions** Conquering the SAT can feel like a daunting task, but with the right preparation, you can transform from a t.. Read more
7 hrs ago
ThePetWorld.org: Top Rated Pet Wellness
ThePetWorld.org stands out as a comprehensive platform dedicated to enhancing the well-being of beloved pets. From practical advice on nutrition to in-depth articles on behavioral training, ThePetWorl.. Read more
20 hrs ago
Elevate Your Graphic Design Skills with Sikkhon.com’s Expertly Crafted Online Courses!
Do you know which skill is in demand in the media industry these days? If graphic designing popped into your head right after reading that question, we must say you’re on the right path. Adobe Illustr.. Read more
24 hrs ago
Learn Key Insights of SEO Content Writing with Sikkhon.com
The introduction of eLearning platforms and online courses has transformed the learning and education methods. The available courses help you enhance skills, gain expertise, and grab growth opportunit.. Read more
2 days ago
Navigating Global Talent Acquisition with Jumping Goldfish's Multi-Country RPO Solutions
In the ever-evolving realm of global business, companies face the complex challenge of sourcing and securing top talent across multiple countries. This is where [Jumping Goldfish](https://www.jumpingg.. Read more
2 days ago
What are the essential resources for your digital SAT study plan
**What are the essential resources for your digital SAT study plan** Here are some resources to power your personalized SAT study plan: * **A Personalized Learning Journey:** LearnQ goes beyon.. Read more
2 days ago
4 Unconventional Strategies for Achieving Distraction-Free Online Learning
Learning offers great convenience and flexibility to students of this age. Any information you need is just a click away. You can easily go to an [online tutoring marketplace](https://vitutors.com/), .. Read more
2 days ago
Online Learning Platforms: A Long-Term Partner for Every Individual
The need for guidance and assistance starts from the learning phase. Everyone needs a tutor who makes learning fun and engaging for learners. After this, the type of guidance and assistance takes a st.. Read more
2 days ago
How to Prepare for the Digital SAT in 2024: Craft Your Personalized SAT Study Plan
**How to Prepare for the Digital SAT in 2024: Craft Your Personalized SAT Study Plan** The SAT has gone digital! As a veteran SAT tutor of nearly 20 years, I've seen firsth and the power of a perso.. Read more
2 days ago